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Hofstede National Culture
Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture:
- Power distance
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Long-term/short-term orientation
- The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members.
- Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations.
- Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia.
- Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden.
- The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity.
- Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations.
- Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France.
- Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong
- The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests.
- Preferences for working individually or in groups.
- Example of an individualistic culture — United States.
- Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico.
- The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits.
- Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships.
- Example of a masculine culture — Japan.
- Example of a feminine culture — Thailand.
- The tendency of a culture to emphasize future-oriented values versus present-oriented values.
- Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons.
- Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea.
- Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States.