Hofstede National Culture – Complete Explaination

National Culture
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Hofstede National Culture


Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture:

  • Power distance
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Individualism-collectivism
  • Masculinity-femininity
  • Long-term/short-term orientation


Power distance

  • The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members.
  • Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations.
  • Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia.
  • Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden.

Uncertainty Avoidance

  • The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity.
  • Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations.
  • Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France.
  • Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong


  • The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests.
  • Preferences for working individually or in groups.
  • Example of an individualistic culture — United States.
  • Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico.


  • The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits.
  • Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships.
  • Example of a masculine culture — Japan.
  • Example of a feminine culture — Thailand.


Long-term/short-term orientation

  • The tendency of a culture to emphasize future-oriented values versus present-oriented values.
  • Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons.
  • Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea.
  • Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States.
Hofstede National Culture
Hofstede National Culture