Levels of Information

What are Levels of Information in Organization

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Levels of Information

 

Information is required at each level of organization, but need of information is different at each level. Information is required at following levels:

Operational Information:

  • Information need for daily tasks
  • Tasks specific information
  • Short term requirement
  • Used by supervisors to handle tasks at operational level

 

Tactical information:

 

  • Used in resource allocation decisions
  • both short term and long term
  • used by managers of departments
  • summarized form but less summarized that strategic information

 

Strategic information:

  • used by directors to decide strategic direction of organization
  • long term information
  • summarized form
  • information about whole organization

 

 

Types of Information Systems

Information systems can be divided into following types:

 

Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

TPS is the basic information system used at operational level. It records the daily routine transactions and arrange them in given forms so that it can be used at higher levels. For example sale orders systems, payroll systems etc

 

Management Information Systems (MIS)

MIS operates at management level. TPS records data on day to day entries basis but daily data is of no use to managers.  Managers are interested in weekly and monthly reports. MIS transform the data

received from TPS into summarize reports which make it suitable for managers to use. Its important to understand that MIS only use data from internal sources

For example if TPS records sale orders or payroll od daily basis, MIS will show monthly figures of sale orders and their comparatives their other months sale orders.

 

 

Management Information Systems (MIS)
Management Information Systems (MIS)

Decision Support Systems (DSS)

This information system supports business and organizational decision making activities

Like DSS also serve at management level but it enjoys more analytical power then MIS.  It presents large amounts of data in the form of models, charts and other creative forms to help managers  in the presentation and interpretation of data.

DSS uses both internal and external sources to gather data.  For example sale, inventory, financial data from internal sources external data like interest rates and taxes figures from external sources

Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Decision Support Systems (DSS)

Executive Information Systems

EIS is used at strategic level to aid executives in Decision making for the performance of the company.

Features of EIS information system includes summarize data, friendly presentation of the data, data analysis.  It help executives to drill down from high levels of  summarize information low level detailed data.

Advantages

  • Timely delivery of summarize information
  • Better understanding of information
  • Correct decision making
  • Achievement of strategic goals

 

Expert Systems (ES)

Expert systems have comprehensive data base of expert knowledge.  ES system comprises of knowledge base and inference rules.  It records human knowledge and us it to make decision for those who have less expertise

ES is based on the concept of artificial intelligence.  Human expertise along with knowledge reasoning patterns create artificial intelligence use to make expert decisions

Expert Systems (ES)
Expert Systems (ES)

 

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